The theory of boundary value problems for elliptic systems of partial differential equations has many applications in mathematics and the physical sciences. The aim of this book is to "algebraize" the index theory by means of pseudo-differential operators and new methods in the spectral theory of matrix polynomials. This latter theory provides important tools that will enable the student to work efficiently with the principal symbols of the elliptic and boundary operators on the boundary. Because many new methods and results are introduced and used throughout the book, all the theorems are proved in detail, and the methods are well illustrated through numerous examples and exercises. This book is ideal for use in graduate level courses on partial differential equations, elliptic systems, pseudo-differential operators, and matrix analysis.